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Carol A. Krawczyk enrolled in the doctoral program in Environmental Psychology at the City University of New York (CUNY) in 2006, after having worked on two observational research studies as an assistant professor at the University of Delaware, in order to learn more about research design and methodology and to flesh out the connections between people and place interactions. The faculty at CUNY provided her with a rich atmosphere of inquiry and exposed her to innovative methods and themes, such as participatory action research, post occupancy evaluations of built environments, and visual-spatial analyses of built environments.


These methods and techniques now provide the foundation for the work accomplished at Research Based Design. Techniques employed include, but are not limited to:


  • Archival research

  • Literature searches of relevant research

  • Interviews (structured, semi-structured, open)

  • Focus Group Organization and Facilitation

  • Observational Studies

  • Participatory Action Methods

  • Photo Voice

  • Post-Occupancy Evaluations

  • Journaling and Essays

  • Surveys (qualitative and quantitative)

  • Spatial Analyses of environments and how they relate to users

  • Way Finding Evaluations, Exercises and Solutions



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